# Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Example (2023)

Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Example. Also, Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver’s Model of Communication. Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Example Situation.

## Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication

American mathematician Claude Elwood Shannon and scientist Warren Weaver introduced the Shannon and Weaver communication model in 1949 in the article THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF COMMUNICATION. Initially, they proposed this mathematical model to describe the signal transmitting system and enhance telephone communication by minimizing noise. Now it is applied in every field of information and communication broadly. However, they did not present the “Feedback”; hence, the Shannon and Weaver model is an example of a linear communication model. Initially, the Shannon-Weaver model excluded feedback; therefore, it is a linear communication model.

Later, Norbert Weiner included feedback to the model in countering the criticism of the one-way communication approach. Shannon and Weaver’s communication model is called the “Mother of all Communication Models” for its extreme popularity. Shannon and Weaver’s Communication Model is also called the mathematical theory of communication, Shannon theory, and information theory in the engineering disciplines.

##### Feedback in Shannon Weaver Model

In 1950, Norbert Wiener added the “Feedback” in Shannon and Model. He presented the feedback system in the book (The Human Use of Human Beings) initially published in 1950. Norbert Wiener is also the founder of cybernetics theory which explains the feedback system. Shannon and Weaver have not published the modified model including feedback. Hence, the original model of Shannon and Weaver is linear as they did not mention feedback.

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(Video) Shannon -Weaver Model of Communication

##### Shannon-Weaver Model Examples of Situation
###### Shannon and Weaver Model Example: 1

For example, Jon calls his friend (Jony) through the smartphone to meet on Monday. Children are screaming around Jony; therefore, he cannot hear what Jon says.

Jon is a source of information that generates the message. The information source is Jon, also the sender of the message. Additionally, the smartphone is a channel that converts the message(voice) into a sound wave signal to transmit from the sender(Jon) to the receiver(Jony). Children screaming sound is the noise that bars the communication process. Jony decodes the voice into a message, so he is the receiver and destination of the message.

###### Shannon and Weaver Model Example: 2

The lecturer conducts online classes through the Zoom virtual meeting platform. However, a student cannot hear the lecture properly due to the raining sound, also known as the physical noise in communication.

The lecturer is the source of information. Zoom meeting is the channel of communication that transmits message into a signal to convey to students. The students receive the message via their smartphones or computers. So, they are the receiver of the message. Finally, the raining sound is the noise that distracts the student from hearing the lecture correctly.

###### Shannon – Weaver Model Example: 1

Jon is listening to the morning news via radio. The news presenter broadcast news regarding today’s weather forecast. However, he cannot hear the report for the radio frequency interference (RFI). RFI is created from an internal wireless system.

The news presenter is the information source, radio is the channel, Jon is the receiver, and radio frequency interference is also known as electrical noise.

(Video) Transmission Model of Communication: Shannon and Weaver

These are the 3 example situation of the Shannon-Weaver model of communication.

##### Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation

The Shannon and Weaver communication model include the six elements: Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source. However, Shannon and Weaver did not mention “Feedback” in 1949; hence, it is a linear communication model. Many researchers and practitioners criticize this model for not adding “Feedback.” Therefore, later, Norbert Weiner included “Feedback” to describe the transactional communication process.

Many communication models have been postulated based on this model- for example Osgood-Schramm transactional model.

##### Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Elements

The Six Elements of Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication are:

1. Information Source.
2. Transmitter.
3. Channel.
5. Destination.
6. Noise Source.

### 1. Information Source

Information source refers to the sender of the communication process that conveys the message to the receiver. It also indicates the person who generates the information and initiates the communication process.

For example, the lecturer gives a motivational speech to new students in the orientation program using a dynamic microphone. In the meantime, an airplane passes over the program. So, students can not hear the lecturer’s speech for a while.

### 2. Transmitter

The transmitter refers to the message converter that changes the message into a signal to transfer through the communication channel. It is also called the encoding process. The messages are spoken words, written messages, pictures, music, and nonverbal communication cues.

For example, the lecturer’s speech transmits through the dynamic microphone. The microphone converts the spoken word into the signal to transfer via electrical current on the wire.

### 3. Channel

Channel is the medium that conveys the message from senders to receivers. The communicators utilize distinguished channels based on the communication process, such as human senses, radio, television, newspaper, electronic tools, social media, and so more.

(Video) Shannon-Weaver Model of Communication

For example, the wire is the channel that conveys messages from the lecturer to students.

Receivers are the people who convert the signal into a meaningful message. They are responsible for decoding the message. So, the receiver is the decoder of the communication process.

For example, students are the receivers who process the signal and sound into a meaningful message.

### 5. Destination

Destination indicates both senders and receivers of the communication process who encode and decode the message.

According to Shannon and Weaver’s Model of Communication, “when I talk to you, my brain is the information source, yours the destination; my vocal system is the transmitter, and your ear and the associated eighth nerve is the receiver.”

### 6. Noise

Noise is the unwanted sound of the communication process that disrupts effective communication. Communicators found noises in every type of communication process, including verbal, nonverbal, written, visual, face-to-face, mediated, and group communication. The most common types of noise in communication are physical, physiological, psychological, semantic, electrical, syntactical, cultural noise, and so more.

For example, the airplane sound is considered the physical noise in communication that distracts the students from hearing the speech.

##### Conclusion

In short, the Six Elements of the Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication are Information Source, Transmitter, Channel, Receiver, Destination, and Noise Source. Eventually, Norbert Weiner included the seventh element(Feedback) to make it a transactional communication model. Shannon and Weaver Model was introduced in 1949 and is undoubtedly a linear communication model.

##### Established Year of the Shannon-Weaver Model?

The Shannon and Weaver model was introduced in 1949. However, there is controversy regarding the establishment year of the Shannon and Weaver model. Claude Shannon published the article(A Mathematical Theory of Communication) in Bell System Technical Journal in 1948, known as the Shannon theory. Warren Weaver republished the previous article in 1949, adding more information and discussing the model’s implication for the effective communication process. They also renamed The Mathematical Theory of Communication while republishing it in a book. Therefore, it is known as the Shannon-Weaver model of communication.

(Video) Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication | Business Communication | Study at Home with me

Warren Weaver did not contribute to the article (A Mathematical Theory of Communication) published in 1948 by Claude Elwood Shannon.So, Weaver’sname cannot be included in the model published in 1948. He became co-author of the same article in 1949 and also renamed it “The Mathematical Theory of Communication” while reprinting it in the book. The Mathematical Theory of Communication is called Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver model of communication. So, it is rational to say that the Shannon and Weaver model was introduced in 1949, not 1948.

A Mathematical Theory of Communication

##### Shannon, 1948 Reference

Shannon, C. E. (1948). A mathematical theory of communication.The Bell system technical journal,27(3), 379-423.

##### Shannon and Weaver, 1949 Reference

Shannon, C. E., & Weaver, W. (1949).The mathematical theory of communication. University of Illinois Press

APA- 7th Edition:
Kobiruzzaman, M. M. (2022, July 31). Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Examples. Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform. https://newsmoor.com/shannon-and-weaver-model-of-communication-explanation-examples/MLA- 9th Edition:
Kobiruzzaman, M M. “Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication Explanation & Examples.” Newsmoor- Best Online Learning Platform, 31 July. 2022, https://newsmoor.com/shannon-and-weaver-model-of-communication-explanation-examples/

## Author: M M Kobiruzzaman

Email: mmkobiruzzaman@gmail.com View all posts by M M Kobiruzzaman

(Video) Shannon Weaver Model of Communication

## FAQs

### What is Shannon and Weaver model of communication examples? ›

An example of the Shannon-Weaver model is a telephone call. Here, a person who makes the call is the sender and uses a telephone as the encoder to turn the message into a form which can be relayed through wires.

What is Shannon Weaver model of communication explanation? ›

The Shannon and Weaver Model of Communication is a mathematical theory of communication that argues that human communication can be broken down into 6 key concepts: sender, encoder, channel, noise, decoder, and receiver.

What are the 5 elements in the Shannon Weaver model of communication? ›

Shannon and Weaver's original model contains five elements: information source, transmitter, channel, receiver, and destination. The information source is where the information is stored. In order to send the information, the message is encoded into signals, so it can travel to its destination.

What is communication model with example? ›

Watching the news on the television is the perfect example of Berlo's S-M-C-R Model of communication. The news presenter is the source of the news and she conveys the message to the audience. The news is the message, the television — the channel, and the audience are the receivers of the message.

What is an example of Schramm model? ›

For example, an art professor will not be able to explain past participle tense to a group of second standard students. Elements of the Schramm model of communication include Encoder or Sender, Decoder or Receiver, Interpreter, and message.

When did Shannon and Weaver model of communication form? ›

Here, we are going to look at one of the best-known: The Shannon-Weaver model. This model was first published in 1948, and it has been adapted, modified, and developed in many ways since. Claude Shannon was a mathematician and Warren Weaver was a scientist.

Why is the Shannon Weaver model noted as the mother of all communication models? ›

Shannon and Weaver's model is considered as an advanced model than other communication models due to the importance it attaches to the feedback mechanism which lacks in most of the other communication models.

What element is Shannon and Weaver model? ›

It is a transmission model consisting of five elements: an information source, which produces a message; a transmitter, which encodes the message into signals; a channel, to which signals are adapted for transmission; a receiver, which decodes (reconstructs) the message from the signal; a destination, where the message ...

Which model of communication is most effective? ›

The best known communication models are the transmitter-receiver model according to Shannon & Weaver, the 4-ear model according to Schulz von Thun and the iceberg model according to Watzlawick.

What are the 3 types of communication models examples? ›

Three Models of Communication are Linear, Interactive, and Transactional in 2022. Also, the Linear Model of Communication and the Interactive and Transactional communication models are used.

### What are the different communication models explain each? ›

The three models of communication we will discuss are the transmission, interaction, and transaction models. Although these models of communication differ, they contain some common elements.

Which of the following is an example of one way communication model? ›

Some examples of one-way communication include television, radio, writings, speeches and performances.

How would you explain the Schramm model of communication? ›

Schramm's model regards communication as a process between an encoder and a decoder. Most importantly, this model accounts for how people interpret the message. Schramm argued that a person's background, experience, and knowledge are factors that impact interpretation.

What is the example of Osgood Schramm model of communication? ›

Talking on the Phone

When you hang up, you promise to chat again soon. Without knowing it, you've engaged in a two-way system of communication popularized as the Osgood-Schramm model.

Why Schramm model is the best? ›

The Schramm Communication Model offers a classic approach to and explanation of communication. It can be used to determine how communication between two people works when they're exchanging information, ideas, or attitudes.

Which model of communication is known as the mother of all communication? ›

The Shannon–Weaver model of communication has been called the "mother of all models." Social Scientists use the term to refer to an integrated model of the concepts of information source, message, transmitter, signal, channel, noise, receiver, information destination, probability of error, encoding, decoding, ...

What communication model focuses mainly on speaker and speech? ›

Aristotle Model is mainly focused on speaker and speech. It can be broadly divided into 5 primary elements: Speaker, Speech, Occasion, Audience and Effect.

What element of communication developed the ideas concepts or beliefs that are shared in the process? ›

- Feedback, which is essential to make communication, a successful one. It is the effect, reply or reaction of the information transmitted to the communicatee. Firstly, the communicator develops an exact idea about concepts, beliefs or data that he wants to convey.

Why is Shannon Weaver model effective? ›

Concept of noise helps in making the communication effective by removing the noise or problem causing noise. This model takes communication as a two way process. It makes the model applicable in general communication. Communication is taken as quantifiable in Shannon Weaver model.

Why is it important to understand the models of communication? ›

Communication models help identify and understand the components and relationship of the communication process being studied. Models represent new ideas and thought on various aspects of communication which helps us to plan for effective communication system.

### Which model of communication best describes how communication works? ›

Interaction Model of Communication. The interaction model of communication describes communication as a process in which participants alternate positions as sender and receiver and generate meaning by sending messages and receiving feedback within physical and psychological contexts (Schramm, 1997).

What is the example of transactional model? ›

Examples of the transactional model include a face-to-face meeting, a telephone call, a Skype call, a chat session, interactive training, or a meeting in which all attendees participate by sharing ideas and comments. As with the linear model, noise can affect the communication.

Why is the Shannon Weaver model noted as the mother of all communication models? ›

Shannon and Weaver's model is considered as an advanced model than other communication models due to the importance it attaches to the feedback mechanism which lacks in most of the other communication models.

What are the two main channels in Shannon Weaver's communication model? ›

Shannon – Weaver Model Example: 1

RFI is created from an internal wireless system. The news presenter is the information source, radio is the channel, Jon is the receiver, and radio frequency interference is also known as electrical noise.

What element is Shannon and Weaver model? ›

It is a transmission model consisting of five elements: an information source, which produces a message; a transmitter, which encodes the message into signals; a channel, to which signals are adapted for transmission; a receiver, which decodes (reconstructs) the message from the signal; a destination, where the message ...

What are some examples of conversation in a transaction model? ›

Examples of talk as transaction
• Classroom group discussions and problem-solving activities.
• A class activity during which students design a poster.
• Discussing needed computer repairs with a technician.
• Discussing sightseeing plans with a hotel clerk or tour guide.
• Making a telephone call to obtain flight information.
Feb 8, 2016

What is transactional model of communication in simple words? ›

The transactional model of communication refers to the continuous exchange of information where both the sender and receiver are involved in the process and take turns to communicate messages. The participants are known as communicators and can be either human beings or machines.

Which model of communication is the best? ›

The best known communication models are the transmitter-receiver model according to Shannon & Weaver, the 4-ear model according to Schulz von Thun and the iceberg model according to Watzlawick.

Which model of communication is known as the mother of all communication? ›

The Shannon–Weaver model of communication has been called the "mother of all models." Social Scientists use the term to refer to an integrated model of the concepts of information source, message, transmitter, signal, channel, noise, receiver, information destination, probability of error, encoding, decoding, ...

What communication model focuses mainly on speaker and speech? ›

Aristotle Model is mainly focused on speaker and speech. It can be broadly divided into 5 primary elements: Speaker, Speech, Occasion, Audience and Effect.

### What model of communication is mostly used for interpersonal communication? ›

Barnlund's Transactional Model. In 1970, Dean C. Barnlund created the transactional model of communication to understand basic interpersonal communication.

Who created Shannon and Weaver model? ›

The first model of the communication process was developed by Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver. The aim was to enable engineers from the Bell Telephone Company to transmit mechanical messages more effectively.

What has Schramm added to the Shannon Weaver model? ›

Schramm (1954) modified the Shannon-Weaver model to create a circular, more comprehensive model. Here the sender gives the message to a receiver and the feedback is returned from the receiver to the sender. The experiences of both the sender and the receiver are taken into consideration.

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