History of the classification of mental disorders - Neuromedia (2023)

Mental disorders refer to a broad range of conditions that can affect a person’s thinking, feeling, mood and behavior. These conditions include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

The dates for the classification of these mental health conditions are listed here.

Philippe Pinel(1745-1826), French psychiatrist, is interested in the mental pathology of the elderly and its disabling aspect.We must give him the first classification of mental illness. He identifies different categories of patients.

Jean-Etienne Esquirol(1772-1840), French psychiatrist, deepens the work of Pinel: he establishes the different forms of melancholy, establishes the distinction between hallucinations and illusions and draws a parallel between madness and passions.

Joseph Daquin(1732-1815), French psychiatrist, classifies the insane into different groups: the insane, the quiet insane, the extravagant, the insane and the insane in dementia.

1810: there are differences on the notion of mental illness;three schools stand out: the French, Scottish and English schools.

Antoine Ritti(1844-1920), sends a report (1895) on the psychoses of the elderly subject.

Jules Seglas(1856-1939), French psychiatrist, particularly studied the classification of disorders and diseases (called nosography) of psychoses including delusions and hallucinations.

Karl Ludwig Kahlbaum(1828-1899), German psychiatrist, considers mental illness to be an illness that develops over time.

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1860: demonstration of the existence of a correlation between mental functions and the different parts of the brain.For example, Arnold Pick (1851-1924; Czech Republic) shows that the dysfunction of language and praxis is associated with damage to the temporal and frontal lobes.

1887: S. Beljahow reports that neurons in the cerebral cortex of elderly patients with dementia are distorted and in the form of debris:

Emil Kraepelin(1856-1926), German psychiatrist, distinguished in 1889 manic-depressive psychoses from early dementias.He defines psychotic states as a profound alteration in the subject’s consciousness.He will publish eight editions of his Treatise on Psychiatry from 1883 to 1909.

Emil Redlich(1866-1930), Austrian neurologist, described, in 1898, plaques in the cerebral cortex of a 78-year-old woman who suffered from senile dementia.He is probably the first to speak of ‘senile plaques’.

Andre Leri(1875-1930), French neurologist, presented a report in 1906 in which he described histological lesions (these lesions are amyloid plaques) that Alois Alzheimer would later describe as characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease.

Alois Alzheimer(1864 – 1915), German psychiatrist, followed the case of a 51-year-old patient suffering from dementia with cognitive alterations, delirium and hallucinations, until her death in 1906. By examining the brain, he discovered histological lesions (called plaques and neurofibrillary degeneration) characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease.Alois Alzheimer published a second identical case in 1911 in a younger person.

1906: Solomon C. Fuller (1872-1953), American psychiatrist, describes the presence of neurofibrillary degeneration in senile dementia.

Emil Kraepelin(1856-1926), subsequently proposed designating this type of dementia by the name of his colleague Alois Alzheimer.

1912:E. Kraepelin defines «Alzheimer’s disease» as a rare pre-senile dementia affecting the young subject, and qualified as «senile dementia» the vascular dementias of the elderly subject, caused by a lack of oxygen (caused by a blockage of vessels) in the brain.The idea of ​​the vascular origin of senile dementia lasted until the 1960s, with the common use of terms such asarteriopathic dementiaorcerebral vascular insufficiency.

Around 1900, two forms of senile dementia were identified: dementia linked to arteriosclerosis (aging of the arteries and arterioles which harden) and subcortical dementia which affects the cerebral structures located under the cortex.

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At the beginning of the 20th century, elderly people with cognitive and/or behavioral disorders were very often placed in institutions against their will until their death.Around 1930, Grégoire Halberstadt devoted himself to the clinical study of early dementia.

1949: publication of the 6th revision (ICD-6) of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, containing for the first time a classification of mental disorders.The International Classification of Diseases is published by the World Health Organization (WHO)

1952: The American Psychiatric Association publishes the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) which aims to create a common reference of mental disorders.In all, five editions will be published: the DSM I (1952), DSM II (1968), DSM-III (1980) and its revised form DSM-III-R (1987), the DSM-IV (1994) and its revised DSM-IV-TR (2000).A sixth edition (DSM V) is planned for 2013.

Mental disorders include five axes

Axis I: Major clinical disorders: depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, attention disorder with or without hyperactivity, autism spectrum disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia and schizophrenia.

Axis II: Personality disorders and mental retardation: paranoid personality disorder, schizoid personality disorder, schizotypal personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, narcissistic personality disorder, personality disorder, avoidant personality disorder, dependent personality disorder, obsessional neurosis, and mental retardation.

Axis III: Specific medical aspects and physical disorders: these are brain damage and other medical/physical disorders that can aggravate existing illnesses or symptoms.

Axis IV: Psychosocial and environmental factors

Axis V: Global Assessment of Functioning Scale

Around 1960: reorganization of psychiatry as a whole;importance of the social aspect of patient care;global approach to the patient which takes into account the psychological and social aspects.

1969: first geriatric psychiatry manual published by the Swiss psychiatrist Christian Müller.

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1970s: Doctors realized that the majority of senile dementias had the characteristics of Alzheimer’s disease.

1974: Hachinski described dementia by multiple infarctions, dementia distinct from that of the Alzheimer type, and established a scale which bears his name (scale adapted by Loeb and Gandolfo, in 1983, after the support of the scanner).

Beginning of the 1980s: the care of the elderly is the subject of particular attention from French psychiatry.In 1981, a summary of psychogeriatrics was published in French by the Swiss psychiatrists C. Müller and Jean Wertheimer.

1981: introduction of the term psychogeriatrics, defined as the medical discipline concerned with the prevention of the consequences of aging, the psychology of nursing practice, the relational and behavioral problems of the patient’s family (caregiver) and professional environment.Not to be confused with psychogerontology, which is the science that seeks to understand, and possibly correct, the behavior of the aging person.

1990: tenth revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) with its chapter 5 on ‘mental and behavioral disorders’.This chapter is structured as follows:

1.Organic mental disorders, including symptomatic disorders.
– Dementia in Alzheimer’s disease (early onset, late onset, atypical or mixed form, unspecified).
– Vascular dementia (with acute onset, multiple infarcts, mixed, cortical and subcortical, unspecified).
– Dementia associated with other diseases classified elsewhere (Pick’s disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), other diseases).
– Organic amnesic syndrome, not induced by alcohol or other psychoactive substances.
– Delirium, not induced by alcohol or other psychoactive substances (not added to dementia, added to dementia, unspecified).
– Other mental disorders, due to brain damage or dysfunction, or to a physical condition (examples: organic hallucinatory state, organic catatonia, organic delusional disorder, mood disorders, organic anxiety disorder, dissociative disorder, lability (asthenia) emotional, mild cognitive impairment).
– Personality and behavioral disorders due to brain disease, injury and dysfunction (eg post-encephalitic syndrome, post-concussion syndrome).
– Organic or symptomatic mental disorder, unspecified.

2.Mental and behavioral disorders related to the use of psychoactive substances.

3.Schizophrenia, schizotypal disorders and delusional disorders.

4.Mood (affective) disorders.
– Manic episode.
– Bipolar affective disorder.
– Depressive episodes.
– Recurrent depressive disorders.
– Persistent mood disorders (eg cyclothymia, dysthymia).
– Other mood disorders.

5.Neurotic Disorders, Disorders Related to Stressors and Somatoform Disorders.– Phobic anxiety disorders (eg agoraphobia, social phobias).
– Other anxiety disorders (examples: panic disorder, generalized anxiety).
– Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.
– Reactions to a major stressor, and adjustment disorders.
– Dissociative disorders.
– Somatoform disorders.
– Other neurotic disorders (eg neurasthenia).

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6.Behavioral syndromes associated with physiological disturbances and physical factors.

7.Personality and behavioral disorders in adults.

8.Mental retardation.

9.Disorders of psychological development.

10.Behavioral and emotional disorders usually appearing during childhood and adolescence.

11.Mental disorder, not otherwise specified.

1994: Hachinski advanced the concept of “vascular cognitive disorders” encompassing vascular dementia.According to him, vascular dementia is not strictly speaking a dementia syndrome as it is defined for Alzheimer’s disease.

1999: publication of the book ‘Psychiatry of the elderly subject’ (authors Jean-Marie Léger, Jean-Pierre Clément, Jean Wertheimer).

2003: O’Brien et al.propose the termvascularcognitive impairment, which encompasses the different forms of vascular damage.These disorders are not necessarily accompanied by dementia.

2004: Roman et al.propose the term “vascular cognitive diseases”.This term encompasses the notions ofvascular cognitive deficitand vascular dementia.Vascular cognitive deficit refers to the concept of «mild cognitive decline» (a stage often preceding Alzheimer’s disease), and is therefore limited to non-demented patients.

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Who proposed the first scientific classification system for mental disorders? ›

Classifying mental illness: a brief history

But the first attempt to classify such afflictions was by the Greek physician Hippocrates in 400 BC, who believed that mental illness stemmed from imbalances of a person's black bile, yellow bile, phlegm, and blood.

What is the history of DSM and ICD? ›

DSM was first published in 1952 while development on ICD began as early as 1893. The DSM is strictly confined to mental disorders while the ICD system is considered a global classification. Both the system is subject to expansion every 10 years.

What approach has historically driven psychiatric classifications? ›

The St. Louis approach to psychiatric diagnosis came to be known as the “medical model” of psychiatry, which incorporated psychological and social contexts along with biological aspects of psychiatric illness [3].

What are the classification of mental disorder according to DSM-5? ›

Example categories in the DSM-5 include anxiety disorders, bipolar and related disorders, depressive disorders, feeding and eating disorders, obsessive-compulsive and related disorders, and personality disorders.

What is the history of the DSM classification? ›

The DSM evolved from systems for collecting census and psychiatric hospital statistics, as well as from a United States Army manual. Revisions since its first publication in 1952 have incrementally added to the total number of mental disorders, while removing those no longer considered to be mental disorders.

Who is the father of mental disorder classification? ›

Emil Kraepelin, (born Feb. 15, 1856, Neustrelitz, Mecklenburg-Strelitz [Germany]—died Oct. 7, 1926, Munich, Ger.), German psychiatrist, one of the most influential of his time, who developed a classification system for mental illness that influenced subsequent classifications.

What is the historical perspective of mental illness? ›

The prevailing views of early recorded history posited that mental illness was the product of supernatural forces and demonic possession, and this often led to primitive treatment practices such as trepanning in an effort to release the offending spirit.

What are the classification of mental disorder according to ICD-10? ›

F1: Mental and behavioural disorders due to use of psychoactive substances. F2: Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders. F3: Mood [affective] disorders. F4: Neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders.

What is the DSM-5 and ICD-10 classification system? ›

However, the DSM-5 gives mental health professionals criteria and definitions to classify diseases through a common language, while ICD-10 assigns a code that is used for reimbursement in claims processing. It is also important to note that the DSM-5 is strictly intended for mental disorders.

What is the history of ICD coding? ›

History of the ICD

The system was based on the Bertillon Classification of Causes of Death, developed by French statistician and demographer Jacques Bertillon. In 1898 the American Public Health Association recommended that Canada, Mexico, and the United States use that system and that it be revised every decade.

What is the purpose of classification of mental disorders? ›

The classifications currently used in psychiatry have different aims: to facilitate communication between researchers and clinicians at national and international levels through the use of a common language, or at least a clearly and precisely defined nomenclature; to provide a nosographical reference system which can ...

Which classification system is used by most mental? ›

DSM-5-TR is the standard classification of mental disorders used by mental health professionals in the United States. Learn more about the development of DSM-5-TR, important criteria and history.

What are the three etiological theories in the history of mental illness? ›

Throughout history there have been three general theories of the etiology of mental illness: supernatural, somatogenic, and psychogenic.

When was the DSM classification system started? ›

The APA Committee on Nomenclature and Statistics developed a variant of the ICD–6 that was published in 1952 as the first edition of DSM.

What is the importance of DSM classification? ›

DSM contains descriptions, symptoms and other criteria for diagnosing mental disorders. It provides a common language for clinicians to communicate about their patients and establishes consistent and reliable diagnoses that can be used in research on mental disorders.

What approach to classification is used in the DSM system? ›

The DSM-5 method for diagnosing personality disorders is called a categorical approach. However, an alternative method, called the dimensional approach, is also presented in DSM-5 for consideration and future research.

What is the root of mental disorders? ›

Most mental disorders are thought to arise from a complex mix of genetic and environmental factors. Past studies have found evidence of shared genetic risk factors among different mental disorders.

Who proposed the six 6 components of mental health? ›

The Six-factor Model of Psychological Well-being is a theory developed by Carol Ryff which determines six factors which contribute to an individual's psychological well-being, contentment, and happiness.

How was mental illness treated throughout history? ›

Exorcisms, malnutrition, and inappropriate medications all appeared as treatment methods for people with mental illnesses. The idea that people with mental illness were “crazy” or “other-worldly” influenced the lack of effective treatment methods.

What are the 3 historical approaches to psychology? ›

Psychology is a broad field of study with many different branches that have evolved throughout its history. Explore three of the most well-known approaches to psychology: gestalt, psychoanalysis, and behaviorism.

Why is it important to understand the history of mental illness? ›

It can provide a window on the present and an explanation of some aspects of current practice. In addition, a study of the past can provide a vision of how things might be done differently in the present and in the future.

What are the four historical perspectives of psychology? ›

The early years of psychology were dominated by a succession of these different schools of thought. If you have taken a psychology course, you might remember learning about structuralism, functionalism, psychoanalysis, behaviorism, and humanism—all of which are different schools of psychological thought.

Does the DSM-5 include classification? ›

The DSM-5 classifications include updates and additions for many mental disorders. Clinicians and researchers have eliminated some classifications and combined others.

What are the 3 main coding classification systems? ›

Right now, there are five major types of medical coding classification systems that are used by medical coding professionals — ICD-11, ICD-10-CM, ICD-10-PCS, CPT and HCPCS Level II. If you're interested in becoming a medical billing and coding professional, it's important to learn more about each system.

What is the latest ICD classification? ›

Originating in the 19th century, the latest version of the ICD, ICD-11, was adopted by the 72nd World Health Assembly in 2019 and came into effect on 1st January 2022.

What are the two types of ICD-10 history codes? ›

In the U.S., ICD-10 is split into two systems: ICD-10-CM (Clinical Modification), for diagnostic coding, and ICD-10-PCS (Procedure Coding System), for inpatient hospital procedure coding.

What are history codes in Medical Coding? ›

History Code Guidelines

Personal history codes explain a patient's past medical condition that no longer exists and is not receiving any treatment, but that has the potential for recurrence, and therefore may require continued monitoring.

What is the #1 most diagnosed mental disorder? ›

Anxiety Disorders: Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health condition in the US and can include OCD, panic attacks and phobias. It is estimated that 40 million adults have an anxiety disorder.

What are the big 3 mental disorders? ›

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), roughly 1 in every 5 Americans is currently living with a mental illness. Of those, the three most common diagnoses are anxiety disorders, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

What are the three 3 causes of mental disorders? ›

childhood abuse, trauma, or neglect. social isolation or loneliness. experiencing discrimination and stigma, including racism.

What are the top 10 worst mental disorders? ›

The top 10 mental health issues and illnesses include anxiety disorders, bipolar affective disorders, depression, dissociative disorders, eating disorders, paranoia, PTSD, psychosis, schizophrenia and OCD. One in four adult Americans will have a diagnosable mental disorder at any given time.

How many mental disorders exist? ›

There are more than 200 classified forms of mental illness. Some of the more common disorders are depression, bipolar disorder, dementia, schizophrenia and anxiety disorders. Symptoms may include changes in mood, personality, personal habits and/or social withdrawal.


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