When the conditions for Pearson’s chi-square test are not met, especially when one or more of the cells have expi < 5 or with 2 × 2 contingency tables, an alternative approach is to use Fisher’s exact test. Since this method is more computationally intensive, it is best used for smaller samples.
2 × 2 Contingency Table Example
Example 1: Repeat Example 2 from Independence Testingusingthe data in range A5:D8 of Figure 1;i.e.determine whether the cure rate is independent of the therapy used.
Figure 1 – Data and Chi-square test for Example 1
As you can see from Figure 1, the expectation for two of the cells (G6 and H6) is less than 5. Since we are dealing with a 2 × 2 contingency table with a relatively small sample size, it is better to use Fisher’s exact test.
Fisher’s exact test calculates how many different ways the above marginal frequencies can be achieved and then determines the probability that the above-observed cell configuration can be obtained merely by chance.
We can restrict our attention to any one of the cells since once the frequency for one cell is determined, the frequencies for the other cells can be determined from the marginal totals. We choose cell B6 since it has the smallest marginal total (namely 9 in cell D6) and its value is smaller than the other element that makes up this marginal total (namely 7 in cell C6).
Now cell B6 can take any value between 0 and 9; once this value is set the values of the other three cells can be adjusted to maintain the marginal totals.
Calculating the probabilities
The probability that cell B6 takes on a specific value xis equivalent to the probability of getting x successes in a sample of size 9 (cell D6) taken without replacement from a population of size 21 (cell D8) that contains 11 (cell B8) successful choices. This can be calculated by the hypergeometric distribution. Here cells D6 and B8 are cells with the marginal totals corresponding to cell B6 and cell D8 contains the grand total.
Figure 2 contains a table of the probabilities for each possible value of x.
Figure 2 – Fisher exact test for Example 1
Excel formulas used
Thus, e.g., cell L11 contains the pdf value for the count in cell K11 as calculated by the formula
As observed in Hypergeometric Distribution, the roles of marginal totals B8 and D6 can be interchanged in the above formula.
Users of Excel prior to Excel 2010 can employ the following formula instead
Cell M11 contains the corresponding cdf value for the value in cell K11 via the formula
Since a formula for the cdf is not available in Excel prior to Excel 2010, users of these versions of Excel can insert the formula = L6 into cell M6, the formula =L7+M6 into cell M7, and then highlight the range M7:M15, and press Ctrl-D. Cell M11 will now contain the cdf value for the value in cell K11 via the formula =M10+L11.
The Fisher exact test consists of determining whether the probability is less than .05 that at most 2 of those taking therapy 1 are cured (the observed count in cell B6). From cell L17 of Figure 2, we see that the cdf at 2 is .024172 < .05 = α, and so we reject the null hypothesis and conclude there is a significant difference between the cure rates for the two therapies.
There are one-tail and two-tail versions of the test. The p-value for the one-tail test (cell L17) is given by the formula =SUM(L6:L8) or equivalently (for versions of Excel starting with Excel 2010)
The p-value for the two-tail test (cell L18) is given by the formula
where K14 is the leftmost cell in the right tail that has a pdf value ≤ L8 (since .005614 ≤ .022454, but .050522 > .022454). Equivalently, we can use the formula(for versions of Excel starting with Excel 2010)
= HYPGEOM.DIST(K8,B8,D6,D8,TRUE)+1− HYPGEOM.DIST(K13,B8,D6,D8,TRUE)
Real Statistics Excel Function: The Real Statistics Resource Pack provides the following worksheet function.
FISHERTEST(R1, tails) = the p-value calculated by the Fisher Exact Test for a 2 × 2, 2 × 3, 2 × 4, 2 × 5, 2 × 6, 2 × 7, 2 × 8, 2 × 9, 3 × 3, 3 × 4 or 3 × 5 contingency table contained in R1.
R1 must contain only numeric values. When R1 contains a 2 × 2 contingency table, there is an optional second argument, tails = 1 (one-tailed test) or 2 (two-tailed test, default). For contingency tables of other sizes, only the p-value of the two-tailed test can be returned.
For Example 1, FISHERTEST(B6:C7,1) = .024172 and FISHERTEST(B6:C7, 2) = .029973.
Because the Fisher exact test can be resource-intensive, limits have been placed on the sum of all the cells in the supported contingency tables. These limits are currently set at 2,000 for a 2 × 3 table, 1,250 for a 2 × 4 table, 360 for a 2 × 5 table, 175 for a 2 × 6 table, 110 for a 2 × 7 table, 75 for a 2 × 8 table, 40 for a 2 × 9 table, 320 for a 3 × 3 table, 95 for a 3 × 4 table and 30 for a 3 × 5 table. There are no limits for 2 × 2 tables.
If you want to exceed these limits, you can add a third argument to the FISHERTEST function which specifies how much you want to increase the limit. E.g. if you want to use the Fisher exact test for a 3 × 3 contingency table in range A1:C3 the sum of whose cells is 350, then you can use the array formula =FISHERTEST(A1:C3,,1.1). The 1.1 specifies that you have increased the limit for a 3 × 3 contingency table from 320 to 320 × 1.1 = 352.
Since 350 < 352, the function will run, although it will take a little longer. Similarly, you can use =FISHERTEST(A1:C3,,1.5) for any 3 × 3 contingency table whose entries sum to at most 320 × 1.5 = 480. When the sum is 480, expect the processing to take some time.
3 × 2 Contingency Table Example
Example 2: Determine whether being pro-choice or pro-life is independent of a US citizen’s political party based on the sample shown in range A3:D7 of Figure 3.
You can perform the Fisher exact test by using the worksheet formula =FISHERTEST(B4:C6). The result, as shown in cell H13 of Figure 3, is that being pro-choice or pro-life is not independent of party affiliation since p-value = 4.574E-06 < .05 = α (two-tailed test).
Figure 3 – Fisher exact test for Example 2
Data Analysis Tool
We can also use the Real Statistics Chi-square Test for Independence data analysis tool to get the same result by checking the Fisher Exact Test option in the dialog box that appears (as shown in Figure 3 of Chi-square Test for Independence).
Mid p-value correction
The Fisher Exact Test for 2 × 2 contingency tables can be viewed as too conservative. To address this issue, you can employ what is called the mid p-value correction.
To apply this correction for Example 1, you need to subtract half of the value in cell L8 of Figure 2 from the p-value calculated. This results in a p-value for the one-tail test of .012945 (i.e. .024172 – .022454/2) and .018746 (i.e. .029973 – .022454/2) for the two-tail test.
Real Statistics Function: The Real Statistics Resource Pack provides the following function starting with Rel 8.3:
FISHER_MIDP(R1, ) = the mid p-value for the 2 × 2 contingency table contained in R1. tails = 1 or 2 (default)
Click hereto download the Excel workbook with the examples described on this webpage.
Wikipedia (2012) Fisher’s exact test
Ghent, A. W. (1972) A method for exact testing of 2×2, 2×3, 3×3, and other contingency tables, employing binomial coefficients
Freeman, G. H. and Halton, J. H. (1951). Note on exact treatment of contingency, goodness-of-fit and other problems of significance. Biometrika,38, 141-149.
Agresti, A. (2007) Introduction to categorical data analysis. 2nd Ed. Wiley
Can you run a Fisher's exact test in Excel? ›
You can perform the Fisher exact test by using the worksheet formula =FISHERTEST(B4:C6). The result, as shown in cell H13 of Figure 3, is that being pro-choice or pro-life is not independent of party affiliation since p-value = 4.574E-06 < .When should you avoid Fisher's exact test? ›
The usual rule of thumb is that Fisher's exact test is only necessary when one or more expected values are less than 5, but this is a remnant of the days when doing the calculations for Fisher's exact test was really hard. I recommend using Fisher's exact test for any experiment with a total sample size less than 1000.Can Fisher's exact test used for large samples? ›
Fisher's exact test is a statistical significance test used in the analysis of contingency tables. Although in practice it is employed when sample sizes are small, it is valid for all sample sizes.What is the difference between chi-square and Fisher's exact test? ›
The chi-squared test applies an approximation assuming the sample is large, while the Fisher's exact test runs an exact procedure especially for small-sized samples.How do you use the Fisher formula in Excel? ›
|=FISHER(0.75)||Fisher transformation at 0.75||0.9729551|
The Fisher Exact test uses the following formula: p= ( ( a + b ) ! ( c + d ) ! ( a + c ) !How do you interpret the p-value for Fisher's exact test? ›
Understanding Chi-Square and Fisher's Exact Tests - YouTubeIs the Fisher exact test parametric or nonparametric? ›
Analogous to the chi-square test, the Fisher exact test is a nonparametric test for categorical data but can be used in situations in which the chi-square test cannot, such as with small sample sizes.What is the purpose of Fisher's exact test? ›
Fisher's exact test is a statistical test used to determine if there are nonrandom associations between two categorical variables.How do I report the results of Fisher's exact test? ›
There is no test statistic to report.
Unlike a Chi-Square test of independence, Fisher's exact test has no test statistic to report. Instead, we simply report the p-value of the test and note that we used Fisher's exact test.
What is the null hypothesis for Fisher's exact test? ›
Fisher's Exact Test
The null hypothesis is that these two classifications are not different. The P values in this test are computed by considering all possible tables that could give the row and column totals observed. A mathematical short cut relates these permutations to factorials; a form shown in many textbooks.
Fisher-Freeman-Halton test, an extension of the Fisher exact can be applied for contingency tables that are not 2x2.Which statistical test should I use? ›
|Variables||Research question example|
|Pearson's r||2 continuous variables||How are latitude and temperature related?|
Under which of the following conditions would you need to use the Fisher's exact test instead of the chi-square test? The Fisher's exact test is used when one or more expected cell counts in the cross-tabulation are less than 5.What is inverse Fisher transform? ›
The Inverse Fisher Transform (IFISH) was authored by John Ehlers. The IFISH applies some math functions and constants to a weighted moving average (wma) of the relative strength index (rsi) of the closing price to calculate its oscillator position. The user may change the input (close) and period lengths.Should you report exact p values? ›
In general, p values larger than 0.01 should be reported to two decimal places, and those between 0.01 and 0.001 to three decimal places; p values smaller than 0.001 should be reported as p<0.001.Does Fisher test assume normality? ›
tl;dr: Fisher's Exact Test is nonparametric in the sense that it does not assume that the population is based on theoretical probability distributions (normal/geometric/exponential etc.), but that the data itself reflects the parameters, which is why it proceeds with the assumption that the row/col totals are fixed.Can Fisher's exact test be used for more than 2 groups? ›
What is Fisher's Exact Test? Fisher's Exact Test is a statistical test used to determine if the proportions of categories in two group variables significantly differ from each other. To use this test, you should have two group variables with two or more options and you should have fewer than 10 values per cell.What is the best statistical test to compare two groups? ›
The two most widely used statistical techniques for comparing two groups, where the measurements of the groups are normally distributed, are the Independent Group t-test and the Paired t-test.What kind of statistical test should I use to compare two groups? ›
When comparing more than two sets of numerical data, a multiple group comparison test such as one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) or Kruskal-Wallis test should be used first.
What statistical test should I use to compare 4 groups? ›
The groups can be compared with a simple chi-squared (or Fisher's exact) test. For normally distributed data we can use ANOVA to compare the means of the groups.When should you use chi-square test of independence vs A Fisher's exact test of independence? ›
For simplicity, most researchers adhere to the following: if ≤ 20% of expected cell counts are less than 5, then use the chi-square test; if > 20% of expected cell counts are less than 5, then use Fisher's exact test.How do you find t test on Excel? ›
How To Perform T-Tests In Microsoft Excel - YouTubeHow do I install real statistics resource pack in Excel? ›
Statistical Analysis Add-Ins For Excel (Completely Free!) - YouTubeHow do you find the Chi-Square value in Excel? ›
- Step 1: Calculate your expected value. ...
- Step 2: Type your data into columns in Excel. ...
- Step 3: Click a blank cell anywhere on the worksheet and then click the “Insert Function” button on the toolbar.
- Step 4: Type “Chi” in the Search for a Function box and then click “Go.”
- Excel 2007: Select any cell in the range containing the dataset to analyse, then click Compare Groups on the Analyse-it tab, then click Mann Whitney.
- If the dataset is arranged using the table layout: ...
- Click Alternative hypothesis and select the alternative hypothesis to test.
- Click OK to run the test.
T-Test function in excel is used for calculating the probability of significant difference between two data sets whether any or both of them are under the same population with the same mean.How do you Analyse data in Excel? ›
Simply select a cell in a data range > select the Analyze Data button on the Home tab. Analyze Data in Excel will analyze your data, and return interesting visuals about it in a task pane.